Context: Social, Political, Cultural, Economic

David Bowie, Life on Mars, from Hunky Dory, 1971
Lou Reed, Take a Walk on the Wild Side, from Transformer, 1972
Courtney Fiske, "Alternative art spaces in New York City," in Smarthistory, October 26, 2020

Land Art, Environmental Art

Art Terms
Environmental Art
Land Art

What is Land Art? HeniTalks
The Case for Land Art, The Art Assignment
Spiral Jetty, Sun Tunnels, Salt, Utah The Art Assignment
Richard Long British b. 1945
Richard Long, A Line Made by Walking, 1967
Stones and Flies: Richard Long in the Sahara Trailer, 2019 FULL FILM
Robert Smithson American 1938-73
Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty, Rozel Point Peninsula, Great Salt Lake, Utah, 1970
Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty, 1972
Nancy Holt American 1938-2004
Nancy Holt, Sun Tunnels, Great Basin Desert, Utah, 1973-76

more on Nancy Holt

Williams, Alena J., and Pamela M. Lee, Nancy Holt: Sightlines, University of California Press, 2015

Walter de Maria American 1935-2013
Walter de Maria, The Broken Kilometer, 1975
Walter de Maria, Lightening Field, New Mexico, 1977
Dr. Kuykendell, The Lightening Field, in Smarthistory, 2016
Walter de Maria, Earth Room, NYC 1977
Charles Simonds American b. 1945
Charles Simonds. Dwelling, 1975, Rue des Cascades, Paris.
(Stephanie Weber, Charles Simonds's Absence, 2013 Bomb Magazine)
Dwellings, 1974, The Art of Charles Simonds, The Met
Ann Reynolds, Dwelling as a World, Landscape Body Dwelling, 2011

"Negation, as manifested in anti-monuments such as Oldenburg’s Placid Civic Monument or in Smithson’s conception of “ruins in reverse,” was just one approach to the dematerialization that contributed to the object’s relinquishment of a hard and fast materiality." Ann Reynolds, Dwelling as a World, the Art of Charles Simonds, 2011

Christo American b. Bulgaria 1935-2020 Jeanne Claude American b. Morocco 1935-2009
Christo + Jeanne Claude, Wrapped Coast, One Million Square Feet, Little Bay, Sydney, Australia, 1968-69
Christo and Jeanne-Claude, Running Fence, Sonoma, CA, 1972-76
Christo and Jeanne Claude, Floating Piers, Lake Iseo, Italy, 2014-16

Performance Art

Art Term: Performance Art

Dr. Virginia B. Spivey, "Performance Art: An Introduction," in Smarthistory, August 9, 2015
Can My Body Be Art? TateShots
Niki de Saint Phalle
b. France 1930
d. California 2002
Niki de Saint Phalle, Jean Tinguely and Per Olof Ultvedt, Hon, 1966
Niki de Saint Phalle, Tarot Garden, Garavicchio, Italy, late 1970s
Installation Views, Niki de Saint Phalle: Structures for Life, MoMa PS1, 2021

more on Niki de Saint Phalle

Joan Jonas b. New York 1936
Joan Jonas: New York Performances | Art21 "Extended Play"

Mexican-American Liberation Art Front

Malaquias Montoya b. Albuquerque 1938
Malaquias Montoya, Undocumented, 1980
Smithsonian American Art Museum Exhibition: ¡Printing the Revolution! The Rise and Impact of Chicano Graphics, 1965 to Now
¡Printing the Revolution! The Rise and Impact of Chicano Graphics, 1965 to Now

Second Wave Feminist Art

Art Terms
Feminist Art
Body Art
Context: Joanna Walker, The Body is Present Even if in Disguise, 2009
Seminal Publication: Linda Nochlin, Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?, 1971 ARTNews

Martha Rosler American b. 1943
Martha Rosler Cleaning the Drapes,” a photomontage House Beautiful: Bringing the War Home series, 1967–72
Martha Rosler, Semiotics of the Kitchen, 1975
Martha Rosler, Semiotics of the Kitchen, (still image) 1975
Robert Morris, Advertisement for Castelli-Sonnabend exhibition, April 6-27, 1974
Lynda Benglis advertisement, Spread from Artforum 13, No. 3, November 1974

"On the eve of the November 1974 issue’s release, Artforum’s publisher, Charles Cowles, was conflicted. He didn’t want his mother to see the ad, but he didn’t want the art world to accuse him of censorship. The printer, a “retired brigadier general,” as Coplans told Amy Newman in her book Challenging Art, an oral history of Artforum, had initially refused to print the ad. Coplans appealed to him by saying “it’s a fundamental American issue of the way democracy is run in this country.” The ad was published and the response was immediate." M.H. Miller, ARTnews, 2016

Marina Abramovic b. Yugoslavia 1946
Marina Abramovic, Rhythm 0, 1974
Marina Abramovic, Rhythm 0, Performance, 6 hours, Studio Morra, Naples, 1974
Abramovic and Ulay, Rest Energy, 1980 (Trigger Warning: anxiety producing)

more on Abromovic

Marina Abramovic, The Artist is Present, 2010
Abramovic on The Artist is Present, 2010

Judy Chicago American b. 1939
Judy Chicago, The Dinner Party, ceramic and textiles, 1974-79 (Brooklyn Museum of Art)
Judy Chicago, Virginia Woolf, Place Setting, The Dinner Party, 1974-76
Carolee Schneemannb. Pennsylvania 1939d. New York 2019
Carolee Schneemann, Interior Scroll, 1975
Celeste Gendoza, Cuban queen of the rumba, specifically the guaguanco

If not naturally fearless,” Mendieta “used fear well, transmuting a profound sense of psychological and cultural displacement into an experience of merging with the natural world and its history through art.” Holland Cotter, New York Times 2004

Ana Mendieta American b. Cuba 1948-85
Ana Mendieta, Untitled, Silhueta Series, 1978
Ana Mendieta, Traces/Stopy, 2014 Gallery Rudolfinum(trigger warning, content addresses sexual violence)
Hannah Wilke
b. New York 1940
d. Houston 1993
Hannah Wilke, Beware of Fascist Feminism, 1977
Hannah Wilke, S.O.S. Starification Object Series, 1974-82

A familiar item in many women's wardrobes, stockings recall both the physical presence of the female body and its wider cultural implications. The artist alters such inexpensive everyday materials, which in the case of pantyhose carry simultaneous notions of constriction and beauty, to question accepted understandings of the body. Connie H. Choi, Hammer Museum

Senga Nengudi American b. 1943
Senga Nengudi, Performance Piece, 1978.
Senga Nengudi, R.S.V.P. I 2003. Pantyhose and sand, 10 pieces
Senga Nengudi, MoCA

Seminal Event

"Two Centuries of Black American Art," March 30-May 15, 1977, held at the Dallas Museum of Fine Arts
David C. Driskell in 1977. Tyrone Dukes/The New York Times

“We don’t go around saying ‘white art'...but I think it’s very important for us to keep saying ‘black art’ until it becomes recognized as American art.” David Driskell, The New York Times, 1977.

What is Postmodernism?

Art Term:

"In 1979, Iranian students stormed the US embassy in Tehran. America went blazing in with helicopters to get the hostages out. But it backfired majorly. A helicopter and a plane crashed in the desert. We were left with dead bodies, a pile of burning debris and the hostages nowhere to be seen. So I thought I’d write a song about all that and the failure of technology." Laurie Anderson, The Guardian, 2016

Laurie Anderson American b. 1947
Laurie Anderson, O Superman, 1979
Jack Whitten American 1939-2018
Jack Whitten, April’s Shark, 1974, acrylic on canvas
Jack Whitten, Black Monolith 1, A Tribute to James Baldwin, 1988, acrylic on canvas
Jack Whitten: An Artist's Life Art21

Directions: Deconstruction | Expressionism

Art Terms
"Bad Painting"
New Image Painting

Scott Horton, Philosophers Rumble Over Van Gogh’s Shoes, Harper's Magazine, October 5, 2009
Diane Arbus American 1923-71
Diane Arbus, Lady Bartender with Souvenir Dog, New Orleans, L.A., 1964
Diane Arbus
Anselm Kiefer, German b. 1945
Anselm Kiefer, Everyone Stands Under His Own Dome of Heaven, 1970
Anselm Kiefer, The Unknown Masterpiece, 1982
Ian Alteveer Essay on Kiefer, The Heilbrunn Timeline

more on Anselm Kiefer

Kiefer's studio at Barjac, near Nimes, France
Scholarship on Kiefer's seminal work: Heroic Symbols, 1969

Richard Tuttle b. New Jersey 1941
Richard Tuttle, 44th Wire Piece, 1972
art21: Staying Contemporary, Richard Tuttle
Philip Guston, b. Canada 1913 d. New York 1980
Philip Guston, Monument, 1976
Neil Jenney, b. 1945 lives in New York City
Neil Jenney, Implements and Entrenchments, 1969
Neil Jenney, Threat and Sanctuary, 1969
Joan Brown, b. California 1938 d. India 1990
Joan Brown, After Alactraz Swim #3, 1976 enamel on canvas
Susan Rothenberg, b. New York 1945
d. New Mexico 2020
Susan Rothenberg, Axes, 1976
Rothenberg, Emotions, 2010 Art21
Tony Cragg, British b. 1949
Tony Cragg, New Stones, plastic found objects, 1977
Frank Gehry, Canadian-American b. 1929
Frank Gehry, Gehry House, Santa Monica, CA, 1978

The "Pictures" Generation

Art Term
The "Pictures" Generation

Jeff Wall
b. Vancouver, Canada 1946
Jeff Wall, The Destroyed Room, transparency on lightbox, Cinematographic photograph, 1978. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa. Purchased 1988 © The artist
Cindy Sherman American b. 1954
Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Still #35, 1979
Cindy Sherman, Untitled #216, 1989
Hal Foster, Under the Gaze: The Art of Cindy Sherman HeniTalks
Sherrie Levine
American b. 1947
Sherrie Levine, After Walker Evans: 4, gelatin silver print, 5"x4" 1981
The Art Assignment, The Case for Copying, in Smarthistory, September 7, 2018
Walker Evans, Alabama Tenant Farmer Wife, gelatin silver print, 8" x 6", 1936
Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty, 1970 (photo: dia)